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Celecoxib, sold under the brand name Celebrex among others, is a COX-2 selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). It is used to treat the pain and inflammation of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, acute pain in adults, painful menstruation, and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis in people two years or older.
Side effects include a 37% increase in incidence of major vascular events, which include nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or death from a blood vessel-related cause.
In the late 2000s, the American Heart Association warned that people at high risk for heart disease should only use celecoxib if there are no other possible treatments due to a higher risk of cardiac side-effects.
Celecoxib is available by prescription in capsule form. It was initially marketed by Pfizer for arthritis. Prior to its availability in generic form, Celebrex was one of Pfizer’s “best-selling drugs, amounting to more than $2.5 billion in sales
1 Medical uses
1.1 Mental illness
1.2 Familial adenomatous polyposis
2 Adverse effects
2.1 Allergy
2.2 Heart attack and stroke
2.3 Drug interactions
2.4 Pregnancy
3 Mechanism of action
3.1 Anti-inflammatory
3.2 Anti-cancer
4 Structure-activity relationship
5 History
6 Society and culture
6.1 Fabricated efficacy studies
6.2 Availability
7 Research
7.1 Cancer prevention
7.2 Cancer treatment
8 References
9 External links
Medical uses
Celecoxib is used for osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, acute pain, musculoskeletal pain, painful menstruation, ankylosing spondylitis, and to reduce the number of colon and rectal polyps in people with familial adenomatous polyposis.
For postoperative pain, it is more or less equal to ibuprofen.
Evidence of effects are not clear as a number of studies done by the manufacturer have not been released for independent analysis.
Mental illness
Tentative evidence supports its use in treating a number of psychiatric disorders, including major depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia.
Familial adenomatous polyposis
It has been used to reduce colon and rectal polyps in people with familial adenomatous polyposis, but it is not known if it decreases rates of cancer,
Adverse effects
Cardiovascular events: NSAIDs are associated with an increased risk of serious (and potentially fatal) adverse cardiovascular thrombotic events, including myocardial infarction and stroke. Risk may be increased with duration of use or pre-existing cardiovascular risk factors or disease. Individual cardiovascular risk profiles should be evaluated prior to prescribing. New-onset hypertension or exacerbation of hypertension may occur (NSAIDs may impair response to thiazide or loop diuretics), and may contribute to cardiovascular events; monitor blood pressure and use with caution in patients with hypertension. May cause sodium and fluid retention, use with caution in patients with edema or heart failure. Long-term cardiovascular risk in children has not been evaluated. Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration of time, consistent with individual patient goals, to reduce risk of cardiovascular events; alternative therapies should be considered for patients at high risk.
Gastrointestinal events: NSAIDs may increase risk of serious gastrointestinal (GI) ulceration, bleeding, and perforation (may be fatal). These events may occur at any time during therapy and without warning. Use caution with a history of GI disease (bleeding or ulcers), concurrent therapy with aspirin, anticoagulants and/or corticosteroids, smoking, use of alcohol, the elderly or debilitated patients. Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration of time, consistent with individual patient goals, to reduce risk of GI adverse events; alternate therapies should be considered for patients at high risk. When used concomitantly with ≤325 mg of aspirin, a substantial increase in the risk of gastrointestinal complications (e.g., ulcer) occurs; concomitant gastroprotective therapy (e.g., proton pump inhibitors) is recommended.
Hematologic effects: Anemia may occur; monitor hemoglobin or hematocrit in people on long-term treatment. Celecoxib does not usually affect prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time or platelet counts; it does not inhibit platelet aggregation at approved doses.
People with prior history of ulcer disease or GI bleeding require special precaution. Moderate to severe liver impairment or GI toxicity can occur with or without warning symptoms in people treated with NSAIDs.
Celecoxib contains a sulfonamide moiety and may cause allergic reactions in those allergic to other sulfonamide-containing drugs. This is in addition to the contraindication in people with severe allergies to other NSAIDs. However, it has a low (reportedly 4%) chance of inducing cutaneous reactions among persons who have a history of such reactions to aspirin or nonselective NSAIDs. NSAIDs may cause serious skin adverse events, including exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis; events may occur without warning and in patients without prior known sulfa allergy. Use should be discontinued at first sign of rash (or any other hypersensitivity).
Heart attack and stroke
The coxibs (which includes celecoxib) increase the risk of major cardiovascular problems by about 37% over placebo, according to a 2013 meta-analysis of hundreds of trials.
The COX-2 inhibitor rofecoxib (Vioxx) was removed from the market in 2004 due to its risk. Like all NSAIDs on the US market, celecoxib carries an FDA-mandated “black box warning” for cardiovascular and gastrointestinal risk. In February 2007, the American Heart Association warned that with respect to “patients with a prior history of or at high risk for cardiovascular disease… use of COX-2 inhibitors for pain relief should be limited to patients for whom there are no appropriate alternatives, and then, only in the lowest dose and for the shortest duration necessary.”
In 2005, a study published in the Annals of Internal Medicine found that cardiovascular effects of COX-2 inhibitors differ, depending on the drug.
In 2016, a randomized trial involving more than 24,000 participants provided strong evidence that treatment with celecoxib is not more likely to result in poor cardiovascular outcomes than treatment with naproxen or ibuprofen.
Drug interactions
Celecoxib is predominantly metabolized by cytochrome P450 2C9. Caution must be exercised with concomitant use of 2C9 inhibitors, such as fluconazole, which can greatly elevate celecoxib serum levels.
In the US FDA’s pregnancy categories, the drug is category C prior to 30 weeks gestation, and category D starting at 30 weeks gestation.
Mechanism of action
A highly selective reversible inhibitor of the COX-2 isoform of cyclooxygenase, celecoxib inhibits the transformation of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin precursors. Therefore, it has antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties.
For its use in reducing colon polyps, celecoxib affects genes and pathways involved in inflammation and malignant transformation in tumors, but not normal tissues.
Celecoxib binds to Cadherin-11 (which may explain the reduction in cancer progression).
Structure-activity relationship
The Searle research group found the two appropriately substituted aromatic rings must reside on adjacent positions about the central ring for adequate COX-2 inhibition. Various modifications can be made to the 1,5-diarylpyrazole moiety to deduce the structure-activity relationship of celecoxib.
Celecoxib is compound 22; the 4-sulfamoylphenyl on the 1-pyrazol substituent is required for COX-2 inhibition and the 4-methyl on the 5-pyrazol system has low steric hindrance to maximize potency, while the 3-trifluoromethyl group provides superior selectivity and potency. Thus, it is reasonable to expect COX-2-selective inhibitors to be more bulky than nonselective NSAIDs.
See also: Discovery and development of cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors
Celecoxib and other COX-2 selective inhibitors, valdecoxib, parecoxib, and mavacoxib, were discovered by a team at the Searle division of Monsanto led by John Talley.
Two lawsuits arose over discovery of celecoxib. Daniel L. Simmons of Brigham Young University discovered the COX-2 enzyme in 1988,
According to the National Academy of Sciences, Philip Needleman, who was vice president of Monsanto in 1989 and president of Searle in 1993 In University of Rochester v. G.D. Searle & Co., 358 F.3d 916 (Fed. Cir. 2004), the University of Rochester claimed that United States Pat. No. 6,048,850 (which claimed a method of inhibiting COX-2 in humans using a compound, without actually disclosing what that compound might be) covered drugs such as celecoxib. The court ruled in favor of Searle, holding in essence that the University had claimed a method requiring, yet provided no written description of, a compound that could inhibit COX-2 and therefore the patent was invalid.
After the withdrawal of rofecoxib from the market in September 2004, celecoxib enjoyed a robust increase in sales. However, the results of the APC trial in December of that year raised concerns that Celebrex might carry risks similar to those of rofecoxib, and Pfizer announced a moratorium on direct-to-consumer advertising of Celebrex soon afterwards. After a significant drop, sales of Celebrex have recovered, and reached $2 billion in 2006.
Pfizer resumed advertising Celebrex in magazines in 2006,
In late 2007, Pfizer released another US television ad for Celebrex, which also discussed celecoxib’s adverse effects in comparison with those of other anti-inflammatory drugs.
Society and culture
Fabricated efficacy studies
Pfizer and its partner, Pharmacia presented findings from their study that Celebrex was “better in protecting the stomach from serious complications than other drugs.”
On March 11, 2009, Scott S. Reuben, former chief of acute pain at Baystate Medical Center, Springfield, Massachusetts, revealed that the data for 21 studies he had authored for the efficacy of the drug (along with others such as Vioxx ) had been fabricated. The analgesic effects of the drugs had been exaggerated. Reuben was also a former paid spokesperson for Pfizer. Although from 2002 to 2007 Pfizer underwrote much of Dr. Reuben’s research and “many of his trials found that Celebrex and Lyrica, Pfizer drugs, were effective against postoperative pain,” Pfizer was not aware of the fraudulent data.
Pfizer markets celecoxib under the brand name Celebrex, and it is available as oral capsules containing 50, 100, 200 or 400 mg of celecoxib.
It is legally available in many jurisdictions as a generic under several brand names.
Cancer prevention
The role celecoxib might have in reducing the rates of certain cancers has been the subject of many studies. However, no current medical recommendation exists to use this drug for cancer reduction.
The use of celecoxib to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer has been investigated, but neither celecoxib nor any other drug is indicated for this use. has demonstrated cardioprotective effects and is significantly cheaper, but no head-to-head clinical trials have compared the two drugs.
Cancer treatment
Different from cancer prevention, cancer treatment is focused on the therapy of tumors that have already formed and have established themselves inside the patient. Many studies are going on to determine whether celecoxib might be useful for this latter condition.
Certainly, the inhibition of COX-2 is paramount for the anti-inflammatory and analgesic function of celecoxib. However, whether inhibition of COX-2 also plays a dominant role in this drug’s anticancer effects is unclear. For example, a recent study with malignant tumor cells showed celecoxib could inhibit the growth of these cells in vitro, but COX-2 played no role in this outcome; even more strikingly, the anticancer effects of celecoxib were also obtained with the use of cancer cell types that do not even contain COX-2.
Additional support for the idea that other targets besides COX-2 are important for celecoxib’s anticancer effects has come from studies with chemically modified versions of celecoxib. Several dozen analogs of celecoxib were generated with small alterations in their chemical structures.

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